Permafrost is land where the ground is always frozen below 0˚. The topsoil is thin and most water is frozen during the winter. Areas that have large stretches of permafrost are called Tundra. Tundra is found in the Arctic and is only found on the surrounding islands of Antarctica. Two specific types of vegetation found in polar regions are grass flowers, which are small scrubs that have shallow root systems, flowers with a fuzzy coating that protect them from the wind, produce flowers quickly because they have a very short growing season, some flowers are cup-shaped to direct the sun’s rays into the centre of the flower for warmth. Lichens are organisms. The Tundra comes alive in the summer as the active layer of ground thaws and then the ground ice melts. This turns into liquid (water) and collects in the thin layer of topsoil which then is gatherd in a puddle on the surface. The vegetation uses the water and the sun to grow. The grasses and lichens make a thick and beautiful cover.